Wednesday, September 2, 2020
Ionic and Covalent Bonding - Essay Example Arrangement of ionic bond takes when an electron is moved from a non metal to metal creation the two particles have fractional positive and negative charge consequently they pull in each other. Response between non-metals and metals results into electrons being moved from the metal to non-metal and, along these lines, the metal and non-metal structures particles. Then again, the compound shaped is called an ionic compound (Gaskell 2008, p. 17). In the above model, sodium particle loses an electron to the chlorine iota. Accordingly, sodium molecule, in this manner, turns out to be halfway emphatically charged while the chlorine iota becomes somewhat adversely charged henceforth an ionic bond is framed (Gaskell 2008, p. 18). Ionic bonds don't have an unmistakable shape while covalent bonds have distinct shapes that can be anticipated. Likewise, covalent bonds can be broken to the first iotas which made the particle on the grounds that the molecules are near each other in order to share electrons (Engel and Reid 2012, p.43). While, ionic bonds are strong, covalent bonds atoms are vaporous or fluids. Aggravates that have covalent bonds have a lower dissolving point than ionic bonds since they have feeble van der waals powers that don't require a high measure of vitality. Then again, ionic compound has higher softening focuses on the grounds that their bonds are steady and subsequently high measure of vitality is required to the bonds (Atkins and Paula 2012, p.54). Ionic bonds likewise structure crystalline iotas and in arrangement or liquid state they direct power and are additionally polar bonds. Consequently, the majority of them break up in water yet are insoluble in solvents that are not polar (Silbey et al. 2004 p.30). Ionic bonds are shaped between a metal and non-metal iotas. For the arrangement of the cling to happen, the particles must have high contrast in electron antagonism and it is made when the metal molecule loses an electron to the non-metal creation it
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Rules Grading Criteria Guidance E1 Describe the advancement of kids in a chose age go and in TWO (2) Choose ONE (1) age range and TWO (2) regions of improvement. Depict how zones of advancement kids generally create in this age extend. E2 Describe the improvement of youngsters in a chose age go, distinctive Choose an alternate age extend and portray how kids generally create in from E1 and in TWO (2) territories of advancement this age go in a similar TWO (2) picked regions of advancement as in E1.E3 Explain TWO (2) hypothetical points of view pertinent to the zones of Show how TWO (2) diverse hypothetical viewpoints connect to the picked regions improvement of advancement depicted in E1 and E2. E4 Include THREE (3) perceptions as indeces Carry out THREE (3) perceptions of a similar kid in ONE (1) of the age ranges picked for E1 or E2. In the event that, eg the picked region of advancement is physical turn of events, the 3 perceptions could be on fine engine aptitudes, net engine abi lities, equalization and co-ordination.If correspondence and language improvement is picked, the 3 perceptions could be on tuning in, talking and perusing and composing. Remember these perceptions for a supplement to the task. E5 Identify and utilize THREE (3) distinctive perception strategies Name and utilize THREE (3) diverse perception procedures for the perceptions in E4, eg Written account, free depiction, agenda and so forth. E6 Explain how to keep up secrecy all through the perception Give away from about how to keep the character of the youngster, the setting and the data assembled by the perceptions confidential.E7 Show a comprehension of decent variety and comprehensive practice An away from of assorted variety and comprehensive practice ought to be appeared. Proof ought to be incorporated inside the task to show that you perceive and esteem contrast and plan to meet the individual needs of kids and their families. E8 Include references and a list of sources At least TWO ( 2) references must be made in the content to important books, articles, magazines or sites. These are wellsprings of data and the sources utilized ought to be recorded toward the finish of the task in a bibliography.Sources of foundation perusing can likewise be remembered for the book reference. For more data, see Finding the Level. Models Grading Criteria Guidance D1 Discuss the kid's needs comparable to the chose region of advancement Use the perceptions in E4 to distinguish the individual needs of the watched youngster in that picked territory of improvement. When distinguishing needs, think about formative standards, the age/phase of the youngster, the individual conditions, eg The perceptions show that Child X isn't yet certain about climbingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. This might be becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.D2 Explain how the perceptions can be utilized to help intending to meet the Using the perceptions in E4, give instances of ways the perceptions give kid's needs data and proof to help ar ranging. This may include: assessment of proof, making singular, present moment and long haul plans, distinguishing a kid's inclinations, organization with guardians, and commonsense thoughts for exercises to advance turn of events, eg a visit to the recreation center would give heaps of room to Child X to run, climb and utilize the gear which would assist her with developing gross engine abilities and confidenceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.C1 Analyze the issues which are basic to secrecy and target An improvement of E6. A definite thought of secrecy and target perception. This may incorporate such issues as: sharing data, safe stockpiling of data, working with guardians, lawful necessities, strategies and methods, individual mentalities and valuesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. B1 Reflect on the suggestions for training of the evaluation of youngsters Think about how appraisal of kids through perception may require the through perception specialist to consider their practice.Your reaction may include: issues of unwavering quality and legitimacy, suitable perception methods, suggestions for arranging, legitimate necessities and working with guardians and other professionalsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. An Evaluate the impact of hypothetical points of view on parts of training Make a definite thought from more than one viewpoint of a portion of the which influence the improvement of kids head speculations comparable to kid advancement and show away from of how these have educated and impacted current practice which influences the improvement of kids.
Friday, August 21, 2020
SalisburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Pemberton Park in the Dark Since I originate from the Eastern Shore of this state, I was amazed to hear an apparition story I was already uninformed of. The story happens in a recreation center in Salisbury. The individual who disclosed to me the story is a 19-year-old sophomore at the University, and we talked about it one night after supper. He trusts it to be valid, on the grounds that one of his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s kin has evidently encountered the phantom firsthand. I copied his story: In Pemberton Park, around 30 years agoÃ¢â¬ ¦exactly 30 years back in half a month, really, a youthful understudy got his heart broken. His better half had cherished him, or so it appeared, butÃ¢â¬ ¦she found another person. What's more, the young lady he had cherished so much disclosed to him that their adoration was currently dead. So he concluded that he would be dead moreover. He strolled to Pemberton Park and went for a walk along the lake, far away from every other person, particularly the young lady who had harmed him. He was glad there, alone. Be that as it may, he hauled a substantial rope behind him at any rate. He found an ideal tree over the extension on the waterway. That night he hung himself out of hurt and disdain. In any case, similarly as he hopped, he understood that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t abhor it there. He got up the following day and saw a weird sightÃ¢â¬his own body! He before long understood that he had passed on of pity in a position of joy, and he was bound to s tay there an incredible remainder, alone. Be that as it may, at that point something happenedÃ¢â¬Pemberton Park got well known. Particularly among couples. Sweethearts would walk clasping hands and the youngster would sit quietly, envious and distraught that they were attacking his space. It happened to an ever increasing extent, however he didn't do anything. NothingÃ¢â¬ ¦nothingÃ¢â¬ ¦until one night, right around a quarter century prior, when his former sweetheart came to Pemberton Park with her new darling. At the point when he saw her, he was loaded up with rage. He was unable to take it any more. Night fell, and his former sweetheart kissed her new beau. It was her last kiss. After a tremendous manhunt, the police discovered her body, with her boyfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s, hanging over the waterway by the extension. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t expected to meander profound into Pemberton Park this season of the yearÃ¢â¬ ¦and particularly not with somebody you love.
Thursday, June 4, 2020
2. Methodology: Critically examine possible quantitative and qualitative approaches to examining medication adherence/compliance in African Americans and choose the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"bestÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ research method (support your choice). Denote the strengths and weaknesses of using multiple regression and logistic regression when analyzing data. When you have a dependent variable that can be continuous or dichotomous, choose which regression you would use and support your answer. What are the ethical implications of examining perceived injustice, coping, and relationship with health care provider in African Americans? Methodology Quantitative Approaches to Medication Adherence/Compliance in African Americans The purpose of the research study conducted by Thomas (2007) was to examine the relationship of components of self-concept (body sensation, body image, self-consistency, self-idea, and moral-ethical-spiritual self) and cognitive perceptions with adherence to prescribed recommended health regimes (low sodium diet, regular aerobic activity, and prescribed medications) in individual with heart failure (HF). This study used a descriptive correlational design was used to determine if relationships existed between predictor variables and medication regimes was a threat or challenge to self-concept and the outcome variable of adherence to prescribe health regime. Because of the some of the wording when describing the variables, clarity was problematic and re-reading was done several times to get an understanding of what the study was trying to measure. The research questions were written clearer than the description of the statistical analysis with the independent and dependent variabl es. A power analysis was conducted. The effect size of 0.13 was considered small and may not adequately measure the strength of the relationship between variables. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was obtained. The convenience sample was identified by clinic staff from two different heart failure clinics that screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 97 out of 134 subjects met the criteria. There was no mention of how the principal investigator trained the data collector to ensure consistency. No instruments were found that used RoyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Self-concept Mode Theory to investigate adherence in individual with HF, so a demographic questionnaire and three research instruments were developed using expert assistance. One of the instruments, the HF screening test (10 items) was not pilot tested prior to use. The cognitive perception of cardiovascular healthy lifestyles (57 items) was pilot tested and considered reliable. The adherence questionnaire (6 items) had low reliability scores. Validity indexes were high for all three instruments. Descriptive correlational and predictive correlation analysis using Pearson product moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression was appropriate statistical test to answer the research questions. Of the two research questions, one addressed relationships and the other addressed explaining variances. SPSS was used for data analysis. All data was collected during a regularly scheduled office visit by clinic staff. Verbal consent was obtained and implied consent was evidenced by completion of the questionnaires. Verbal and written instructions were given and confidentiality was explained. Subjects were given the questionnaires, pen, clipboard, and return envelope. Questionnaires were collected by the principal investigator, and kept in a locked, secure file until entered in the database. Returned questionnaires were 70 to 90 percent incomplete. No mechanism was developed to ensure that data col lection was complete, such as taking the subjects to a quiet comfortable setting, thoroughly explaining the need that all blanks be filled, and visually scanning the questionnaires after completion. It seems as if subjects completed the questionnaire in an office waiting room that may have had frequent interruptions. No incentive was offered to subjects and this may have affected their commitment to the research study. The most obvious challenges with this study included the instrumentation and collection of data. The reliability of the adherence questionnaire was low, so more testing and refinement may be needed. In addition, the procedure for data collection could have been improved to engage subjects more into the study, such as private area for testing and small incentives. Next, is a 12-week intervention study (Resnick, et al., 2009) was conducted to test the People Reducing Risk and Improving Strength through Exercise, Diet, and Drug Adherence (PRAISEDD) in a group of el derly African Americans who were low income. The sample resided in a senior housing site and were 65 years of age and older. IRB approval and inclusion and exclusion criteria was listed. Recruitment was completed in one meet-and-greet session at the housing site. The sample size was 22 out of 40 who had expressed interest in the study. The social ecological model was used to guide the study. The PRAISEDD method was designed to motivate, educate, and exercise subjects toward the outcome of improved self-efficacy and adherence to cardiovascular disease preventive measures such as exercise, diet, and medication. The first of the 12 weeks was an education class on preventive measures and goal setting, with advanced practice nurses and a pharmacist teaching the material. Weeks 2-12 were focused on a one hour exercise class three days per week with blood pressure and weights, motivational activities, health promotion education, and review of daily goal activities. These activities w ere lead by an experienced lay exercise trainer and the research nurse. Treatment fidelity was monitored to ensure PRAISEDD interventions were delivered as planned. A number of efficacy measurement tools were completed by the subjects: medication adherence self-efficacy scale (26 items), cardiac medication adherence outcome expectation scale (5 items), self-efficacy for health related diet (20 items), diet outcome expectations (1 item), self-efficacy for exercise (9 items), and outcome expectations for exercise (13 items). All instruments had established reliability and validity for older adults except the cardiac medication adherence outcome expectation scale, that was adapted from the osteoporosis scale and revised to address antihypertensives and lipid-lowering agents. Test-retest reliability and validity was established for this study. Instruments and baseline data was completed prior to the PRAISEDD intervention. This seemed to be a lot of instruments for this elderly popula tion. There was no mention of the time involved to administer the instruments nor if frequent breaks were given. Outcome behaviors included the Yale physical activity survey (questionnaire on physical activity), block brief food questionnaire (for recall of sodium and cholesterol intake), compliance questionnaire (self-report of medication taking), and blood pressure. All outcome measures except blood pressure were subjective and based on recall. Better objective outcome measures such as actigraphy (to monitor physical activity), pill counts (medication adherence), food diary (recall of food intake), and serum cholesterol and urine sodium (monitor food intake). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated-measures analysis of variance to detect changes from baseline to 4-month follow-up. The statistical software package was not mentioned. In summary, the study was well designed, but the outcome measures were a major weakness. Recruitment efforts should have been more aggressive than just one day. Objective outcome data would have made this a solid study. In addition, a control group may strengthened the study as well by providing comparison data. Although follow-up was provided a four months to post test the instruments, a periodic follow-up at weekly intervals may have helped to maintain the sustainability of health behavioral activities and goals. Qualitative Approaches to Medication Adherence/Compliance in African Americans In a study conducted by Ogedegbe, Harrison, Robbins, Mancuso, and Allegrante (2004), the perceived barriers and facilitators to medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension was explored. An open-ended individual interview was used to gather data on subjects in two primary care practices during the course of a year. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit the best participants who could provide the useful information about medication adherence for this study. IRB approval and inclusion and exclusion criteria were listed. No incentives were provided and confidentiality was ensured. Subjects were identified from computerized medical records and appointment logs and approached during office visits or via telephone. Those who consented verbally were interviewed immediately, lasting about 20-45 minutes. Interviewing continued until saturation occurred. Four open-ended question guided the interview: (1) What difficulties so you have in taking your blood pressure medicati ons as prescribed by your doctor; (2) What situations make it hard for you to take your blood pressure mediations as prescribed by your doctor; (3) What situations make it easy for you to take your blood pressure medications as prescribed by your doctor; and (4) What are the skills that make it necessary for you to take your blood pressure medications as prescribed? All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Medical records were used to determine if blood pressure was controlled at less than 140/90 mmHg and retrieve antihypertension medications and comorbidities. Data analysis and collection occurred at the same time. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze data whereby data of previous subjects was compared to that of new subjects. Transcripts were read over and over until recurring concepts to coding, to categories to themes to final coding to final categories. A qualitative software package, Ethnograph, was used to organize date and help with analysis. No menti on was made of moving to the theoretical level in the research study. The grounded theory approach was a good choice, considering the limited research in 2004 when this study was completed. One area of concern was the telephone interview, since the non-verbal responses were not captured. From the methodological perspective, the visualization of an emerging theory was not evident. The study seems more like phenomenology, the lived experience rather than grounded research. In another study (Lukoschek, 2003), focus groups were used to explore different beliefs held by adherent and nonadherent subjects that affect treatment. Uninsured, Medicaid-insured, and lower socioeconomic class African Americans with hypertension who attended an outpatient medical clinic in a large urban setting were invited to participate in this study. Contacts were made during visits, via telephone, or mail. IRB approval and inclusion and exclusion criteria was listed. A qualitative, comparative case de sign was used to categorized subjects as nonadherent, noncontrolled hypertensive, or as adherent, controlled hypertensive. Groups were in session for 90 minutes. All groups were audiotaped and tapes were transcribed. Sociodemographic variables were obtained and subjects received a $15 incentive for participation. Eight focus groups were obtained from 42 subjects. African American research assistants who were trained in focus group methodology served as moderators along with an assistant who took care of logistics such as refreshments, tape recording, and took field notes. The moderator began each session with a story to foster nonjudgemental atmosphere. Groups were asked eight identical, open ended questions that evolved from the health belief model. Examples of questions included: What do you think is hypertension; Why do you think some people get hypertension; Is there anything a person could do to treat hypertension; and What do you think patients about the medication that doc tors give to patients for their hypertension? SPSS was used to compute statistical analysis sociodemographic data. A comparison of the three groups was completed with chi-square for categorical data and f-test for continuous data. The principal investigator along with moderators and assistants analyzed all transcripts, independently for themes, and group discussion and agreement of categories and themes. Group work continued until themes were identified and agreed on by all and theoretical saturation occurred. The QRS NUD*IST software program was used for data analysis. The Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"BestÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Research Method For the purposed research study on medication adherence issues in African American women with hypertension, a quantitative research design will serve as the best methodological approach. From the review of the literature, two qualitative studies were found on the proposed topic. According to Munhall (2007), quantitative research has its origins in qualitative research. The descriptions, interpretations, and understandings from qualitative data, if appropriate, may become the focus of a quantitative study, and unexplained grey areas of statistical data may lead back to another qualitative study. Munhall (2007)describes this process as the qualitative-quantitative cyclical continuum. A number of qualitative studies have been written on African Americans with hypertension (L. M. Lewis, Askie, Randleman, Shelton-Dunston, 2010; Lukoschek, 2003; Ogedegbe, et al., 2004; Ogedegbe, Schoenthaler, Fernandez, 2007; Peters, Aroian, Flack, 2006; Wexler, Elton, Pleister, Feldman, 2009). Al l of these studies mention antihypertension medication adherence in some form. As a result, the data has begun to repeat itself or saturate. Many of the themes are similar. In other words, we have a good idea of the problem, now it is time to determine relationships among variables and determine if certain combinations of variables predict adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen. Quantitative research will allow more sophisticated manipulation of data. When unexplained grey areas arise, we can resort back to qualitative research to gain more insight and the cyclical continuum may continue to evolve. Strengths and Weaknesses of Using Multiple Regression Multiple regression is concerned with relationships and prediction among variables. Multiple regression involves a single dependent variable (DV) and two or more independent variables (IV). The IV can be dichotomous or continuous and the DV is continuous (Huck, 2008; Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). For example, a study might want to learn, what are the best predictors of an elevated blood pressure (greater than 140/90)? The dichotomous IV can have two values such as reactance/nonreactance or coping/not coping. A continuous IV such as age, or a continuous DV such as blood pressure can have infinite measures. There are many strengths of multiple regression such as more than two IVs. These IVs can be combined to predict a value of the DV. For example, the relationship between a set of IVs such as coping, perceived racism, and trust in health care provider can be correlated with the DV blood pressure (Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). When each of the IVs are strongly correlated with the DV, th e regression is better (Polit, 1996; Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). With multiple regression, IVs can be analyzed in different units of measure by converting the IVs to z scores, thus making standardized scores for all IVs. This allows all IVs to be measured on the same scale with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one (Polit, 1996). Multiple regression can be set up to accommodate covariates that researchers wish to control while looking at the impact of other IVs on the DV (Huck, 2008). In addition, regression modeling can be done whereby variables can be placed in or taken out of the model using methods such as simultaneous, hierarchical, or stepwise regression strategies (Polit, 1996). Another strength is the ability to ensure accurate and reliable statistical results by calculating a power analysis. The sample size is dependent on the number of IVs, the desired power, alpha level, and expected effect size(Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). In addition, when data is missing, i t can be estimated from other variables and instead of the grand mean by using computer statistical packages such as SPSS (Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). There are many weaknesses of multiple regression, one of which is assumptions. The results of multiple regression are not trustworthy when assumptions are violated, resulting in Type I or Type II error. Knowledge of assumption violations and not reporting them leads to serious bias and the validity of data is questioned and difficult to interpret (Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). Assumptions include independence, normality, linearity, and homoscedasticy. Of these assumptions, independence is robust to violation, if the violations are not too bad. Normality violations indicate skewed distributions representing increased variance in the form of outliers. Outliers are problematic, can affect the multiple regression analysis, and cause bias results, but they can also a means for further investigation to determine the reason they occurred (Huc k, 2008). Nonlinearity is problematic because the residuals are not concentrated in the center along a straight line (Polit, 1996). The homoscedasticity assumption is violated when the variance is not constant (Polit, 1996). If assumptions are violated, transformations can be done to stabilize linearity and normality (Polit, 1996). Another potential weakness is multicollinearity that occurs when two or more IVs are highly correlated to each other, and essentially measuring the same thing(Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). An example would be two predictors of high blood pressure: (1) not taking blood pressure medications and (2) not taking blood pressure medications on most days. The medication taking behavior is redundant since the blood pressure medication is rarely to never taken. In addition, if the sample size is too small, taking the time, energy, and resources to complete the research study is futile. If the sample is too large, results are vague and not useful (Tabachnick Fid ell, 2007). Also, missing data could be problematic. For example, if study participants refuse to answer sensitive demographic data such as income, which may be related to another variable such as reactance, then if the participantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s data is deleted, it could distort the sampleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s values on the reactance variable (Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). Misinterpretations of data analysis are seen as a weakness, not of the statistic, but with the researcher. With multiple regression, only relationships can be determined and there is never an underlying cause and effect mechanism (Huck, 2008). For example, there may be a strong relationship between lower income and blood pressure measurements 140/90, but we cannot conclude that lower income causes an elevated blood pressure. The most likely explanation of the correlation may be medication nonadherence related to an inability to afford the costs of medications (these variables need to be included in the study t o determine their relationship to high blood pressure). The higher the blood pressure, two or more drug categories may be needed to manage the blood pressure. Lastly, statistical data may have statistical significance but have little to no clinical significance (Huck, 2008). With an increased emphasis on evidence-based research, studies that yield practical clinical significance are held in high regard. Strengths and Weaknesses of Using Logistic regression Like multiple regression, logistic regression is also concerned prediction, trying to predict whether something will or will not happen. Logistic regression involves a single DV and one or more IVs. The DV is dichotomous, for example, a study might want to learn, whether or not a person will adhere to their blood pressure medication regime. The IVs can be categorical or continuous. A categorical IV has no numerical meaning such as gender, neighborhood, or types of comorbidities and an example of continuous IVs may be blood pressure, height, or weight. Logistic regression has several advantages, one of which includes less restrictive assumptions than multiple regression. For instance, logistic regression does not assume multivariate normality (Polit, 1996). In addition, IVs do not have to be linearly related or have equal variances within each group. Another strength, like multiple regression is that logistic regression can be done using methods such as simultaneous, hierarchical , or stepwise regression strategies (Tabachnick Fidell, 2007). In addition, the DV is calculated into the probability that an event will happen using an odds ratio, that transforms the probability of an event occurring into two probabilities, occurring or not occurring. An example is the probability of developing cardiovascular disease or the probability of adhering to hypertension medications. Overall, logistic regression is a more flexible analysis than multiple regression. Logistical regression has several disadvantages, one of which is that too few cases to the number of IVs predicts outcomes poorly. Therefore, a power analysis will needed to determine sample size. In addition, logistic regression can be costly especially when the number of IVs is large. Also, with multiple regression, there is a sensitivity to high correlations among IVs and this could result in multicollinearity whereby redundant variables need to be deleted. Lastly, sensitivity to outliers is problematic as with multiple regression. Which Regression for Continuous or Dichotomous Dependent Variable In summary, when a DV is continuous, multiple regression is used and when a DV is dichotomous, logistic regression is used. Multiple regression allows the measurement of variables that are continuous or interval, representing a numerical value such as age, income, and blood pressure. On the other hand, logistical regression allows the measurement of variables that are categorical or nominal, representing two possible levels such as gender (male or female), religious (yes or no), and neighborhood (urban or rural). It is possible for continuous variable such as age or income to be transformed into dichotomous variables, for example age can be displayed as 65 years of age or 65 years of age, and income can be displayed as $30,000 or $30,000. For the proposed research study on Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âIssues Influencing Mediation Adherence among African American Women with HypertensionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?, logistic regression will be chosen to analyze data resulting from the proposed aims and ass ociated research questions listed: Examine the relationships of demographic characteristics, perceived injustice, relationship with health care provider, medication knowledge, and coping to medication adherence in African American women with hypertension. Q1. Do the demographic characteristics (age, education, income, etc.), perceived injustice, relationship with health care provider, medication knowledge, and coping predict medication adherence in African American women with hypertension? Q2. When controlling for demographic characteristics, do perceived injustice, relationship with health care provider, medication knowledge, and coping predict medication adherence in African American women with hypertension? Explore the association between antihypertensive medication adherence and reactant behaviors in African American women. Q3. Is there a relationship between medication adherence and reactant behaviors in African American women with hypertension? The research q uestion drives the method and in this instance, the IVs are categorical (education, perceived injustice, relationship with health care provider, medication knowledge, and coping) or continuous (age, income) and the DV is dichotomous (medication adherence; adhere or not adhere). The intent of the research questions are to determine which IVs are predictors of whether or not medication adherence will occur and to determine if the odds ratio for these IVs indicate the likelihood of whether or not medication adherence will occur. Ethical Implications of Perceived Injustice in African Americans Justice implies equality, being just, treating people fairly and equally (Hall, 1996). Many African Americans in the U. S. have experienced perceived injustices in the health care system and been victims of disparate health care. Research findings confirmed the perceptions of injustices and discrimination experienced by many African Americans in various health care situations. An extensive study (Unequal treatment: What healthcare providers need to know about racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, 2002) revealed that minorities are less likely than Caucasians to receive needed services, procedures, and routine treatments for common health problems and diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. For example, cardiac care is one area of health care that consistently demonstrates disparity in health care access and delivery. When compared to Caucasians with similar clinical manifestations for cardiovascular disease, African Americans are less likely to r eceive pharmacological therapy (e.g. thrombolytic therapy), diagnostic angiography, heart transplantation, cardiac catheterization and invasive surgical treatments (e.g. coronary bypass surgery) even when treatments and procedures are judged to be appropriate. Although disparate health care is evident, another factor is the strong link between finances and access to cardiac care (Mayberry, Mili, Ofili, 2002). A sad but true revelation in healthcare as well as other facets of life is that injustice is pervasive among the poor and needy. African Americans have the highest poverty rate in the U.S. at 24.7% as compared to 8.6% of Caucasians (Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2008, 2009, September). However, this does not explain the injustices to people of color who have the ability to pay for health care (Kennedy, Mathis, Woods, 2007). Coping with perceived injustices may contribute to illness. A cross-sectional comparative study on discriminat ion and hypertension in older African Americans and Caucasian adults provided support that perceived discrimination was associated with higher diastolic BP. Authors concluded that discrimination may cause adverse effects on BP levels in people of African American descent (T. T. Lewis, et al., 2009). In another cross-sectional study of diverse middle aged women (African-American, Hispanic, White, Japanese, and Chinese women) examined the association between perceived unfair treatment and hypertension. African American women reported the highest levels of perceived unfair treatment followed by Chinese women. However, results did not indicate a positive correlation between perceived unfair treatment and elevated blood pressure (Brown, Matthews, Bromberger, Chang, 2006). Although the results of these studies show conflicting results, the realities of prolonged exposure to perceived injustices may contribute to illness. The issues surrounding hypertension are complex with multiple ca uses for this complex health disparity that results in disproportionate mortality rates. According to Fiscella and Holt (2008) the elimination of racial disparities in African Americans with hypertension will substantially decrease the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease. Better control of hypertension among African Americans can be obtained with adequate resources to discover and address treatment adherence (Fiscella Holt, 2008; Fongwa, Evangelista, Doering, 2006). However, it is imperative that current resources are equitable, and clients are treated fairly and given quality health care without regard to racial or ethnic status (Clark, 2009). Ethical Implications of Coping in African Americans Non-maleficence is the duty to do no harm or duty not to harm others (Hall, 1996). In the health care arena, harm seems inherent for those with a lower socioeconomic status, especially when healthcare services are not readily available when illnesses occur. Being unable to get proper medical care may create undue harm by overtaxing an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s coping skills with multiple fears and anxiety because of increased healthcare costs and decreased access to care. Historical evidence has shown that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of health outcomes with poverty as the leading cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality (Bierman Dunn, 2006). James (1996) noted an inverse correlation between socioeconomic status and health; those with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to experience illness and premature death than those with higher socioeconomic status, thus adversely affecting African Americans, and other minority/ethnic groups. One hypothesis a ccording to James (1996) that may be a possible explanation for how socioeconomic status increases the susceptibility of African Americans and other minority/ethnic groups to increased morbidity and mortality is derived from the legend of John Henry. Based on this folktale, there was a contest between John Henry and a machine; he defeated the machine and suffered mental and physical exhaustion resulting in death. According to James (1996), John Henry symbolizes the relentless struggles of unskilled laborers in their effort to cope with psychosocial, economic, and environmental stressors that eventually erodes their health over time contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, harm is evident when differences in access to treatment play a role in why morbidity and mortality rates for some diseases are higher among African Americans than among Caucasians (Stover, 2002). African Americans and other minority/ethnic groups as compared to Caucasians have poorer access to he alth care services as evidenced by less annual visits to a health care provider, lower use of preventive services, an increased likelihood of not having a primary health care provider, and the likelihood of being uninsured (Mayberry, et al., 2002). Greater ethnic/racial disparities are found among the uninsured and Medicaid populations than those who are privately insured with indications that financial factors outweigh race/ethnicity when considering access to medical care (Mayberry, et al., 2002). Williams (2009, November) purports that a lower socioeconomic status predicts everything in society from the cradle to the grave, including SAT scores, income, jobs, housing, health, and health insurance coverage. Williams (2009, November) states that socioeconomic status is stronger than genetics and a lower socioeconomic status is greatly impacted when race and racism becomes part of the equation. However, the difference in health disparity between lower versus higher socioeconomic status is bigger than the health disparity between African Americans and Caucasians (Williams, 2009, November). According to Williams (2009, November), the issue is not one of availability of health care, but one of care that is accessible (office hours, distance, transportation, affordability, risk of job loss verses doctor appointment, etc.). In a research study conducted by Kumar, Schlundt and Wallston et al, (2009), a telephone survey of 2001 community based participants revealed that race concordance was not a significant predictor of health care quality. Findings did show that other factors such as higher income, higher education, and health insurance were predictors of better health care quality. In addition, socioeconomic status and access to quality health care were more important factors in achieving health status and health satisfaction. This study provides evidence that access to health care is primarily determined by socioeconomic status and daunting assumption that inaccessible health care may result in undue harm. Ethical Implications of Relationship with Health Care Provider in African Americans Respect for persons has two meanings: the (1) client should be treated as an autonomous agent, able to make their own choices, and (2) client who is unable to be autonomous has the right to be protected. It is important that the client and health care provider establish a working relationship built on mutual trust (Clark, 2009). In relationships, trust is vital, especially since the primary matter is adherence to the treatment regime. For many African Americans, health care disparities have hindered the establishment of a trusting client-provider relationship (L. M. Lewis Ogedegbe, 2008). African Americans differ from other racial/ethnic groups, such as Caucasians and Hispanics, because of their history of slavery, oppression, and discrimination. Because of skin color and other distinctive features such as hair texture, thick lips, body shape, the lives of African Americans was not valued. They were frequently used in medical experiments by Caucasian doctors to perfect their te chnique before attempting procedures on the Caucasian race. These types of exploitations by Caucasian physicians endured a long history (Gamble, 1997). As a result, perceived stereotypes and prejudices experienced by African Americans in the health care arena have resulted in mistrust, refusal of treatment, and/or poor adherence with treatment regimes by African Americans (Unequal treatment: What healthcare providers need to know about racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, 2002). A study conducted by Benkert, Peters, Clark, and Keves-Foster (2006) found that the majority of low-income, urban dwelling African Americans were fairly trusting of their healthcare providers and satisfied with the health care given, although negative effects of perceived racism on trust and satisfaction were evident. This study confirms that African Americans do experience an element of trust is in their health care providers, but skepticism continues. According to Benkert, Hollie, Nordstrom, Wickson and Bins-Emerick (2009), nurse practitioners have better trusting relationships with African American clients. Study participants with higher trust and satisfaction were in concordant client-provider relationships. Further study findings revealed that African American men reported less satisfaction with care provided by nurse practitioners and were more suspicious of the health care system. Reasons for lack of trust in this study was not investigated. However, if the men in the study perceived that their treatment was different from Caucasian clients, then that may contribute to mistrust (Clark, 2009). Disparate health care among African Americans and other racial/ethnic groups is well documented (Unequal treatment: What healthcare providers need to know about racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, 2002). Because remnants of African American history continue to exist in subtle configurations, many approach health care with fear, skepticism, and caution (Gamble, 1997 ). Therefore, it is important that health care providers, along with African American clients, devise mechanisms to transcend the effects of history, restore trust in the health system, and overcome barriers to forming relationships to foster optimal health care.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
In college basketball players are entitled to entering the draft after their freshman year in college because of the one and done rule. NCAA does not believe they should entitled because they want the players to get a degree to secure their future. Also they are too immature for the things that come with being in the NBA. They are not fully prepared or developed for the NBA. I agree with the NCAA that they should increase the minimum of years for a college basketball player to enter the draft. You might wonder, what is the Ã¢â¬Å"one-and-doneÃ¢â¬ rule exactly? Ã¢â¬Å"One-and-doneÃ¢â¬ is when a player enters college and plays only one year and has a choice to either leave college for the NBA or stay for multiple years. NCAA and NBA implemented this rule because they believe that the players are too young and immature for the NBA. Before 2006, players were able to enter the NBA draft straight from high school. Prospects were not panning out and seemed like they needed a year or two develop their game. In other words, players were not meeting expectations. The NCAA wants to increase the amount of years to either two or three years that a player has to stay in college before they can consider entering the draft. The rule only lets a player enter the draft, if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re 19 years old and one year removed from high school. Players would go to the draft because of financial reasons. Some grew up in poverty and by entering the draft would solve that problem. By creating a big pay day. Tiny Gallon said,Show MoreRelatedProfessional Basketball vs Ncaa College Basketball917 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCompare and Contrast: Professional Basketball vs NCAA College Basketball Sports have became a huge part of our American culture. We are known worldwide for having produced some of the most top-ranked athletes in a wide variety of sports. Basketball has become a very popular sport amongst all types of people ranging from little kids to the older generation. What other sport can you see players jumping high off the ground, going around the back and through the legs, to slam dunk a ball throughRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?3174 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesGene Goldston Brian Hance English 12 01/28/15 Should College Athletes Be Paid? College sports are a highly paid business. It is produced sold just like all other commercial products. The NCAA generated over $70 million in the basketball tournaments. Schools who made it to the finale instantly earned over $1.3 million. $275 thousand was given to those who were invited to the tournament. Football is just the same. The (1988-89) seasons produces $53 million and $66 million and was split between allRead MoreMichael Jordan And Kobe Bryant On Equal Footing With The Player1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMichael vs Kobe The great Michael Jordan once said Ã¢â¬Å"To many players in today s NBA, Bryant stands on equal footing with the player he patterned his game after.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.foxsports.com/) I find it authentically interesting that if you ask Kobe Bryant he will willing confess to attempting to replicate Michael JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusive playing style. When Kobe was questioned concerning the allegations in regards to Kobe stealing MJÃ¢â¬â¢s style of play this was his rebuttal Ã¢â¬Å"as a kid growing up in Italy, allRead MoreThe Legal Issue Selected And How It Affects The Sports World1860 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagessurrounding this sport law issue. 3. Suggest changes or modifications that might strengthen the current law. The topic I chose for the research paper was OÃ¢â¬â¢Bannon vs. NCAA, because I found this case has lots of aspects worth discussing, like one of the defendants is Electronic Arts Inc., a videogame corporation (I played lots of videogames from EA like NBA LIVE series and FIFA series and I do love them), which made me curious, I would like to know more about EA did in this case and how these actions affectedRead MoreEssay on ESPN: The World Wide Leader in Sports1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe NFL and NBA. ESPN has TV contractual rights that allow them to broadcast games for each sport live or be allowed to showcase footage of all that nightsÃ¢â¬â¢ action on their weekly shows. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look back to summer of 2010 when LeBron James made the infamous decision of leaving the Cleveland Cavaliers and deciding to join the Miami Heat. While much speculation had gone on in the weeks prior to the event, no one really knew for sure where LeBron James would play ball for the 2010-11 NBA season. ESPNRead MoreEarly Entrance Of The National Football League Draft3467 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesEntrance: The Road to the National Football League Draft A recent article in the Wall Street Journal written in March 2014 discusses why underclassmen were suddenly leaving in droves for the NFL draft. A picture on the front depicts Johnny ManzielÃ¢â¬âwho decided to leave Texas AM after his redshirt sophomore season. The article states, Ã¢â¬Å"Throughout the offices and film rooms of NFL teams, the whispers are building: This may be the deepest NFL draft ever. It also may be the one that ruins collegeRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pages6 (2005), pp. 1185Ã¢â¬â1203; and S. E. Scullen, M. K. Mount, and T. A. Judge, Ã¢â¬Å"Evidence of the Construct Validity of Developmental Ratings of Managerial Performance,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Applied Psychology 88, no. 1 (2003), pp. 50Ã¢â¬â66. 9. F. Luthans, Ã¢â¬Å"Successful vs. Effective Real Managers,Ã¢â¬ Academy of Management Executive (May 1988), pp. 127Ã¢â¬â132; and F. Luthan s, R. M. Hodgetts, and S. A. Rosenkrantz, Real Managers (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988). See also F. Shipper and J. Davy, Ã¢â¬Å"A Model and Investigation ofRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 Pages.............................................................................................................................. E x a m p l e 1 . 1 0 Graduation Rates for NCAA Division I Schools in California and Texas Ã¢â" The Chronicle of Higher Education (Almanac Issue, August 31, 2001) reported graduation rates for NCAA Division I schools. The rates reported are the percentages of full-time freshmen in fall 1993 who had earned a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree by August 1999. Data from the two largest statesRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pages269 United Chemical Company 269 Byron vs. Thomas 271 Active Listening Exercise 272 SKILL APPLICATION 274 Activities for Communicating Supportively Suggested Assignments 274 Application Plan and Evaluation 274 274 SCORING KEYS AND COMPARISON DATA 276 Communicating Supportively 276 Scoring Key 276 Comparison Data 276 Communication Styles 276 Comparison Data 276 SKILL PRACTICE Diagnosing Problems and Fostering Understanding: United Chemical Company and Byron vs. Thomas 278 ObserverÃ¢â¬â¢s Feedback Form
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The legalization of gambling and casino development in communities has become a heated debate topic in recent years. As with any debate, there are two sides presenting valid arguments. The purpose of this paper is to present information from the perspectives of those both in favor of and opposed to the legalization of gambling and casino development in their communities. The paper concludes with the application of ethical theories to help determine the morality of casino development. Positions Regarding the Legalization of Gambling and Casino Development Debates are created out of a passion and/or concern over a particular issue. In this case, the question that needs answered is Ã¢â¬Å"what are the implications to society for legalizingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Finally, an increase in job opportunities is a strong motivator for the legalization of gambling and casino development in a time where jobs are hard to find. Jobs are created in all sectors from planners, construction workers, dealers, table workers, cooks and kitchen staff, bartenders, wait staff, security, hotel staff, event coordinators, etc. Financial reasons are the most discussed reasons for the advocacy of legalizing gambling and casino development. Opposition Position The opposing side of the legalization of gambling and casino development holds the costs to society as the most important reasons to deny the casino industry access to their communities. Some reasons cited as societal costs are: increased crime, increased traffic congestion, and increased family problems (Stitt et al., 2005). According to Stitt et al., (2005) people are concerned with the possible increase of crime in their communities if casinos are allowed to be built. Some of the crimes of concern are theft, prostitution, vandalism, and public drunkenness. Traffic congestion is also a concern for community residents; just getting around town to perform normal living functions such as shopping, dining out, and commuting to work are sufficient reasons for some to oppose casino development in their community (Stitt et al., 2005). Lastly, family issues cited as societal costs too great to pay to allow casino operation in aShow MoreRelatedLegalization of Gambling Pro/Pro1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshefty amounts of cash and be content, or on the other hand they can take the chance to lose ample amounts of money and be miserable. But that is the responsibility of the people and the Government should trust and respect that. Spending money in a casino is no different from spending money in a tavern or a sports arena or even at a political fundraiser. The government should not engage themselves in this type of situation. The gambling industry has supported many different types of organizationsRead More Legalization Of Gambling Essay1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshefty amounts of cash and be content, or on the other hand they can take the chance to lose ample amounts of money and be miserable. But that is the responsibility of the people and the Government should trust and respect that. Spending money in a casino is no different from spending money in a tavern or a sports arena or even at a political fundraiser. The government should not engage themselves in this type of situation. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The gambling industry has supported many differentRead MoreImproving Organizational Retention Paper1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRetention A healthy and productive work environment is important for any organization. Problems will occur; how the problems are solved will influence an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s rate of satisfaction or content in his or her current workplace. At JCÃ¢â¬â¢s Casino, these problems seem not to be solved to the overall satisfaction if at all. The workplace is experiencing friction and high stress levels that need to be alleviated quickly. If the problems are not solved in a timely manner, the employees dissatisfactionRead MoreWhy Gambling Should Not Be Prohibited Or Policed By The Federal Government1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGambling In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world there are many different types of gambling such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sports and internet gambling. Popularity of this activity remains strong in America, however, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. I believe gambling is a fun social activity that should not be prohibited or policed by the federal government. It should be an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose if they gamble or not based on theirRead MoreGambling Is Not Immoral Or Unethical1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGambling In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events, and the internet, just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. People strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; they are wrong. There are several positive aspects of gamblingRead MoreGambling Is Not Only A Fun And Social Activity1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGambling In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events and the internet just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. Those that are strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; I do not agree. Gambling is not only a fun andRead MoreEthical Problem with Gambling Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslegalized commercial casino gambling state (Nelson, 2007). Since 1963, there has been widespread of gambling to take across the nation. It is more than casinos, places to play lottery, or illegal places that hold gambling tournaments. Some of these activities were found in Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Mississippi became popular in the mid-2000s but was known as a gamb ling state in 1996. (Nelson2007). There are a lot of casinos that are built onRead MoreCasinos on Indian Reservations2998 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesmost people bring casino gambling to mind. Approximately five hundred and sixty tribes are recognized by the federal government, and only about one third conduct casino style gambling. (Light and Rand 9) Reservations are sovereign nations, meaning tribes are Dependent on and subordinate to, only the federal government, not the states. (Light and Rand 36) This has been the tribes Ace in the hole that has allowed many reservations to prosper through the operation of casinos. Politics, crimeRead MoreCase Study : Mgm Grand Faces1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGrand crisis management, the situation may have not escalated to the stature that it did. Recommendation for a Crisis Management Program makes up for three teams: Crisis Public Relations Team, Crisis Response Team, and Crisis Maintenance Team. Development of a Crisis Public Relations team would be the most influential sector of the Management Program. If a problem occurs, with the exception of the necessary faculty and staff, the costumers should be the first to know. Many times, panic and fear fromRead MoreChapter Study Questions 1 2 Essay1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesregressive tax system, which means a tax that imposes a disproportionately heavier burden on low-income people than on the more affluent. 8. What is meant by economic diversification and has Texas done this? 6 Economic diversification is the development of new and varied business activities. New business were encouraged to relocated to or expand in Texas after the oil and gas industry, which had been the base of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, suffered a major recession in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. 9. What is meant by
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Building Constructive Relations in a Trucking Company. Answer: Introductions Through the case study, the report aims at providing the implications and applications of various human resource management practices that can be applied in the workplace. The provided case study describes about the importance of HR management and the roles that the HR managers play in the realization of the overall goal of any given organization and the theories involved in the study of Human Resource Managements and practices. The report emphasizes on the efficiency of the workplace practices that were introduced by the new Manager in the Constructive relation at top trucking company (the case study). The learner will be able to understand the roles played by the yard manager, the challenges faced by the manager in the process of implementing his strategies. The aspect of change is clearly elaborated, the research illustrates that primarily, the workers fear change for different reasons such as fear of the unknown. Human resource management In the view of Schuler ad Jackson (1987) as referenced in Tan and Nasurdin (2011) Human resource practices is a system that develops, attracts, retains and motivates employees to get ensured about the survival of the members of the organization and organization as a whole. Human resource practices are a style that is used by organizations in resource allocation, managing human capital, and division of tasks. The union delegate that is George Psaros was the expert witness of the company transformation phase, and in offering of his support for the union workers and management of the organization. The company was well recognized although the working condition was affected by the manager who was said to be demanding, dominating and autocratic making the workplace unfavorable to the individuals working in the yard. According to Murthy (2012), HRM is an area of interest where employers and employees interest should coincide with an emphasis on organizational effectiveness. The company when it was operated under the old management had came across several challenges from the manager's attitude which was unwilling and usually commanding for accepting the fact that the divers were unwilling to adopt because of lack of participation of management and his efforts to bringing adaptation. The new manager was so determined and well motivated, he brought in several changes such as dress code, training of workers and equal participation by all the employees including the union`s delegate in the process of improving the workplace practices and performance of the yard. The HRM affect the productivity of any organization either positively or negatively depending on the attitude of the HR manager. Human Resource Management model There are four Human Resource Management models; the Harvard Framework, the Guest the Fombrun and finally the Warwick model (Management study HQ journal, n.d.). The company in the case study utilizes Harvard Framework to manage the workers who are the drivers in the organization. In the case study, the yard under new management mainly focuses on the workers (truck drivers) and introduces several workplace practices to create a productive environment. Coyle-Shapiro et al. (2013), states that in the Harvard Framework model, the line manager needs to accept more work on the basis of responsibilities so to comply with the synchronization of competitive strategy and individual policies. According to this model, the rules are designed for governing the development of activities of the management and its personal and also the implementation of the plans about the organization`s objectives. The employees are the most valuable stakeholders instead of the customers or shareholders; the Harvard Framework model creates the following human resource policies; recruitment of workers the selection, termination, employees appraisal, and promotions. The employee's influence is concerned with the delegation and responsibilities. Managing and Designing the workflow among the reward and people systems which can be practiced via motivating employee by rewarding as well as providing them recognition (Croft, 1995). Application of HRM model Shabnam (2010) illustrated that the important confrontation before the line manager who are workers which are unwilling and autocratic to give approval for the critique. The old management did not involve the employees in decision making; their views were not considered in the management o the yard. Appointed new line manager: The administration named the new manager who has all the information about the conflicts and previous behavior between the union and the old manager. He was open-minded and willing to listen to the innovative ideas from its workers on many occasions. Instead of blaming the workers he preferred to have an open discussion with the workers who were opposed for such change. He explored issues delegated and logical responsibilities for others according to the capabilities of them. Infrastructure change: In the given case study, the new manager was able to inject more capital in the infrastructure of company which is buying new trucks; this was considered as primary issue which was identified from the workers during their process of discussing in open manner with the new manager. The manager spends more capital in investing money in purchase of uniforms for the drivers and invested large funds in the setting new computer system in the yard`s warehouse although the changes were not acceptable but in future it was supported after realizing the advantages brought along (Holden, 2001). Training and development According to Gibb (2008), it was important to nurture the talents and enhance the skills of the workers in the company. The manager initiated a new process to offer training for both customer service segment as well as the drivers. Health and safet The manager has continuously putting his efforts to improve the safety and health of the workers. The management has also invested a huge amount of money in cleaning the yard for establishing clean working conditions for the workers at yard (Hyman, 1996). Sustaining risk of changes if the George or manager as the delegate of union moves on According to the Human Resource Department, going into a new organization or at a new level in the same organization with various demanding task is considered as an important task. Relocating either the Manager of George will result in the following risks: Incomplete task: if the manager is move there will be a risk of unfinished work that intended to create company`s benefit. Both are settled in the company and moving them may lead to change in the course of actions as planned by the organization (Richley, Lingham and Rezania, 2006). The insecurity sense: the change in the practices of manager who has still not understood completely the system would result into the creation of a feeling of insecurity in relation to the future growth as expected as well as for the regular working of the operational activities between the workers and the management (Chew, and Cheng, 2004). Lack of confidence: in case of a labor union the Union delegate has trust and high respect from the employees, if he is moved without proper communication there will be the rise of unresolved issues (Finegan,2000). Unbiased communication: the manager communicates straight, and a simple way and easy to everyone (Kamoche, 1996), moving him away will result in biased communication. Adaptability of workplace changes Blue Collar Union The blue collar union is also called as to be union of the workers, who are working as shop floor workers, drivers, and fire fighters among others. Greater union support is enjoyed by these workers as in comparison to the people who are engaged in service and private sector (Guest, 1994). The Blue collar workers are majorly paid on hour basis or on daily or on weekly basis, as it depends upon the working structure of their organization (White-Collar and Managerial Trade Unions, 2012). These are majorly focused with the union rather than focusing on the management of the organization for which they are working (Merrick, 2001; Barclay, 2001). They posses greater demand in the market, the reason behind this is their jobs requires more of labor and manual work rather than knowledge. These people are appointed and placed majorly for the production work; besides this they have minimal management interactions with the manager (MacDonald, 2015). The employees are categorized as professionals or skilled workers on their key experience and academic knowledge (Evans and Cowling, 1985). Professionals enjoy lesser union support, with different viewpoints and acceptability level in relation to the changes in workplace. Baker (2005) states that people working for public and private sectors are much closer to the managerial persons and their decision-making activities as compared to people who are associated with the union of transport workers. Besides this, people working in the service and public sector have more saying over decisions for policy making. Hence, the blue collar union workers has to adapt according to the workplace changes in a more accepting way as compare to workers which are engaged in the private sector or service sector (Klehe, 2004). Conclusion By analyzing the case study on building constructive relationship in top trucking company the model as of Harvard Framework is adopted for renovating the organization by introducing several changes in the workplace in the organization. Replacing the computer systems, training of all workers, uniforms, manager and increasing the focus on drivers, the dedication of the new manager and the union delegate have profoundly influenced the success of the company. Human resource management act as the backbone of the business operations, well-established HR will determine the possibilities of the firms` growth and poor HR management with no doubt will lead to failure of the company. Reference Baker, B. (2005) The Fight Goes On! : Global View,pp.24-35 Barclay, J. (2001) Improving selection interview with structure: Organizations` use of behavioral interviews, Personnel Review, vol. 30,no. 1,pp.81-101. Cheng, J. and Chew, L. (2004) the influence of Human Resource Management Practices on retention of Core Employees of Australian Organizations: AN Empricial Study, Murdock University, July Coyle-Shapiro, J., Hoque,K., Kessler, I., Pepper, A., Richardson, R. and Walker, L. (2013) Human Resource Management: the London School of Economics and Political Science. Crofts, P. (1995)A helping hand up the career ladder: people Management, September. 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